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Protozoa ,Type and Classification of Protozoa


Protozoa Definition  – The word Protozoa is derived from the language of the Greek proto and zoa. proto has the meaning of “first” and has a meaning of zoa “Animal ” so it can be interpreted as the earliest form of an animal. microorganism is a classified as unicellular eukaryotes. Initially, the Protozoa phylum is indeed an under kingdom Animalia.

Protozoa formerly classified as animals because it can move (motile). However, after further research then the protozoa are grouped into under the kingdom Protista. More than 30,000 species of protozoa have been found. Currently, the protozoa become a separate kingdom in the classification issued by the integrated taxonomic information system (ITIS) in 2009, according to research from cavalier smith.

Characteristics of Protozoa

Protozoa are generally very small, measuring between 10 to 52 micrometers, and some can grow up to 1 mm.-size because that protozoa can only be seen using a microscope. Protozoa usually asymmetrical-shaped and pale colored.
Earmarks – General characteristics of protozoa are:
1. single-celled
2. Eukaryotic (nucleus of membrane has)
3. Solitary (alone) as well as in the colonies (Group)
4. Live free, saprofit or parasites.
5. Can form cysts to survive.
6. Has the tool motion in the form of pseudopodia (false feet) or Cilia, flagella.
Protozoa are distinguished from a group of prokaryotes because it is larger and has a membrane of the nucleus. Hence the group included eukaryotic protozoa. Protozoa are distinguished from algae because it has no chlorophyll. Distinguished from fungus because it can move active cell-walled and not as well as distinguished from the slime as it cannot form the body of the fruit.

The body structure of protozoa
The body is very simple protozoa consists only of a single cell but has a versatile system. All tasks performed by the body only one cell alone without experiencing overlap. Its body size ranges from 3 to 1000 microns. any shape is various kinds of. There is nothing like a round ball, elongated forms such as sandals, or totally erratic. Some have tools such artificial leg motion, flagella, or Cilia.
The surface of the body of protozoa is lined by a thin cell membrane, elastic, porous and porous, which is composed of the lipo protein so the shape is volatile change. Some types of protozoa have an order out of the substance of kersik and lime. Organelles found in the cells of protozoa of which was the nucleus of the Golgi bodies, mitochondria, vacuoles, and plastids.

Protozoa classificationprotozoa classification

One of the Classic Protozoa classification is a tool of motion. According to this criterion are grouped into four classes of protozoa, which are:
1. The Rhizopoda
This group has the tool motion be pseudopods (false feet). This is an artificial foot cell protoplast. Some examples such as: rhizopoda
• the Amoeba proteus, which has two type of vacuole, i.e. food vacuoles and contractile vacuoles.
Entamoeba histolytica •, which caused the dysentery Amoeba (unlike with dysentery caused by Basilar shigelle dysentrie)
Entamoeba gingivalis •, which causes spoilage of food in the mouth (giginvitis/gingivitis)
• Foraminefera sp, which they could use as clues to the existence of petroleum.
• the Radiolarian fossil deposits, the sp used for material polisher.

2. Flagellated
This group has the tool motion in the form of flagella (fur whip). This organ can also be used as a tool of the senses and as a tool to catch food. There are two kinds of Protozoan flagellate, namely:
• Fitoflagellata is autotrophic and has chloroplasts so it can be photosynthetic. An example of this type of group, for example, euglena Viridis (transition between living protozoa with algae). NOCTILUTICA MILARIS (life in the sea and can pull out the light when exposed to mechanical stimuli) or volvox globator (transition between living protozoa with algae).
• Zooflagellate are refer to heterotrophic (have no chloroplasts) and therefore cannot perform photosynthesis an example of this type such as Trypanosoma gambiense (cause sleeping sickness in Africa with the vector tsetse fly Glossina palpalis rivers or )

3. Cilliata
This group has the tool motion in the form of Cilia (hairs vibrating). This tool is useful as a tool of motion also lat to find food. the size of the shorter Cilia from flagella e.g. ciliata eg:
• Paramecium caudatum, also known as animal slippers. Species has two type of vacuole that is food vacuoles and contractile vacuoles that serves to balance the pressure of osmosis (as osmoregulator). Spesiaes has two nuclei, namely: macronucleus and micronucleus as a reproductive core. They reproduce sexually (splitting) or sexually (by conjugation)
• Balantidium Coli that cause diarrhea.

4. The Sporozoa

This group does not have the tool motion. They move by way of changing the position of her body. Sporozoa can develop both vegetatively (asexually) called schizogony. They can also breed in generative called sporogony.
Examples include the sporozoa is generally correlated with human health, for example:

  • Plasmodium falciparum which causes tropical malaria
  • Plasmodium that causes malaria tertiana vivak
  • Plasmodium malariae  which causes malaria knartana
  • Plasmodium ovale which cause malaria Plasmodium ovale.

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