Ancient Arabic manuscripts dub city as the jewel of the East “. While Europeans called it “the land of Scientists”. The magnificent and picturesque towns that have aged as old as Rome, Athens, and Babylon. The land that became a legend over 2,750 years was named Samarkand-the second largest city in Uzbekistan.
The vibrant city of Samarkand is so famous had made Emperor Alexander the great was hooked, when set his feet for the first time in the land of the city of Samarkand, Alexander said, “I have long heard of the beauty of the city, but never thought this city turned out really pretty and pretentious. ”
Besides famous for its beauty, known as the city of Samarkand. City legend was in the middle of “the shadow of Asia” that connects the Silk Road between China and the West. At the time of the triumph of Islam, Samarkand became a Center for scientists, that is why the European people refer to it as the “land of Scientists”.
The Vibrant city of Samarkand
The city of Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. In the beginning, the city was called Maracanda. In 329 BC, Alexander the Great conquered the city. Two centuries later the Samarkand became part of the territory of the Kingdom of Himyarite (115 B.C.-33 M). By that time the city became the site of the merging of three cultures i.e. Western, Chinese, and Arabic.
In the 6th century a.d. the city of Samarkand fell to Turkey. The city is entering a new chapter when subjected to Islam in the 8th century Umayyad Dynasty m. which was then led by the Caliph Abd al-Malik (685-705) commissioned Qutaibah bin Muslim as Governor of Khurasan in the region.
At that time Samarkand was led by Tarkhum who has escaped from the Chinese dynasty. Qutaibah and Tarkhum ever establish peace agreement. But substitute Tarkhun forced the Muslim army leader Qutaibah to a captive. Ummayad pun then puts its forces in the region.
Slowly but surely the teaching of Icelandic began to be accepted in Samarkand. Even the area along with Bukhara became an important center of Islam in Central Asia. The Umayyad Dynasty has overthrown after the Abbasids, Islamic and Chinese troops into the battle, known as the War of Talas in 751 M.
Muslims on the golden age began transferring science and how to manufacture paper from two Chinese prisoners of war. No wrong when Samarkand was dubbed as the city of the milestone the world cultural revolution. For the city that was the first time the paper industry first appeared. The paper industry eventually spread throughout the Islamic world to Europe.
The Caliph al-Mamun of the Abbasid dynasty, give the governorship to the sons of Asad Ibn Saman to rule Transoksania of Samarkand. The family of Saman on 875 M proclaimed the establishment of the Samanid Dynasty and ruled over Samarkand. After that Samarkand pun alternately ruled Islamic Dynasties.
The Heyday Of The Town Samarkand
Samarkand reached a peak in the era of Islamic golden age when the Timurid Dynasty (1370-1506 ad). Under the leadership of Timur, two leading explorers Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta saw stretching progress made Samarkand.
“Samarkand is one of the most beautiful and largest cities in the world,” said Ibnu Batuta. While Timur Lank in Samarkand, growing very rapidly. Nearly half of trading activity in Asia churning in the city of Samarkand.
At that time in the market of Samarkand can already be found products that are made of leather, linen, silk, spices, precious stones, melons, apples, and a variety of other items. In that era of Samarkand already have architectural monuments.
Timur’s replacement, Sharukh moved the capital of the Timurid Samarkand to Herāt. However, until the reign of Ulugh Beg, the community of Samarkand live in prosperity and the city became a Center for the study of science. One of the proof is to Ulugh Beg Observatory. In addition, the city’s many stand madrasa or college. For a century Timurid Dynasty in power, reaching its peak of Samarkand.
Around the year 1500 M of Timurid Dynasty, the power started to brittle. The city finally fell into the hands of the Uzbek nation under the leadership of Ozbek Khan Shaibani. After that Samarkand is under the control of Bukhara. In 1868, Samarkand has conquered Russia and became part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Since the superpowers Soviet Union broke, Samarkand became part of the State of Uzbekistan