Pests and diseases of tomato plants
Tomato Plant Pests – Controlling pests and diseases is one of the important factors in the business of cultivating tomato plants. The presence of pests and diseases can result in decreased crop productivity or even cause the death of the plant.
The tomato is a fruit vegetable crops annual crop as well as chilies, Eggplant and so forth. some plants have season vegetable pests and diseases are almost the same, ranging from different types of pests as well as symptoms of an attack. For example, tomato plants, eggplants, and chilies have similarities in terms of pests and disease
On this occasion, we will discuss a wide range of pests and diseases that attack the ordinary tomato plants. And with the right Control will help us to get optimal yields.
Some pests that often attacked the plant family Solanaceae is found also on tomato plants. The type can be grubs, lice, and flies. While the disease of tomato plants can be wilted, rotten attacks viruses and bacteria
Tomato plant pests
a. The cotton bollworm
The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Heliothis armigera or) invade the leaf, flower, and fruit of tomato. this insect is making holes in tomatoes are on the move. Fruit perforated will experience infection and rot.
The body length of The cotton bollworm approx. 4-5 cm with its surface is warty and covered with fur. Color Caterpillar varies from yellowish green, green, brownish to black. On the side of the body, there is a wavy line with brighter colors. The form of his moth has a length of 2 cm, the outer wings with the color Brown and the inside are white.
The cotton bollworm controlled charging manual Caterpillar eggs and then burned. Keep hygiene a garden of weeds and shrubs. In the form of the Moth can be controlled with ultraviolet traps. To use this type of spraying insecticide.
b. Black Cutworn
Black Cutworn attacked the base of the stem and the leaf stalk. Stem Cutworn black bite affected would be easily broken and dead. In addition, The cotton bollworm larvae attack the surface of the leaf on the young tomato plants. Cutworn black usually attacks escalated at the beginning of the dry season.
Body shape black Cutworn shorter than The cotton bollworm, length is about 2 cm. color Black cutworn dark brown with stripes on the side. The larvae of The Black cutworn are thriving and lurking beneath the surface of the soil to a depth of 10 cm. Larvae are going out at night and started to bite the tomato plants.
Black cutworn be controlled by assisting the larvae in the afternoon or evening. The larvae are usually assembled at ground level. Processing of good soil can suppress the development of black cutworn. When the attack escalated can be sprayed with insecticide.
Aphis (Aphis spp.) is a carrier of the virus. So, the tomato plants were afflicted with fleas this is affected by the spread of the virus. Green tick length around 2 mm. There are winged and not winged. Aphis winged head and his chest color brown to blackish, part of her stomach is usually yellowish-green. Aphis that doesn’t tint yellowish-green wings.
The leaves are afflicted by lice green curly leaves varied, being a dwarf, and the shape is curved down. It could also narrow ribbon leaves. The color of the leaves and the leaves become a brittle mosaic.
To suppress the development of this pest could with the use of plastic mulch silver, Aphis is not fond of the reflected rays of the Sun. Spraying can use insecticides.
e. The Silverleaf whitefly
The Silverleaf whitefly (Bemisicia tabaci) characterized by white, the surface of the body is coated with white flour. The length of the fly is approximately 1 mm in diameter, their wings span about 2 mm.
Tomato plants are afflicted by The Silverleaf whitefly will look like is covered by a white flour. When it touched the white flour will be ejected. By this pest plant growth being stunted and dwarf. The leaves will shrink and curl up.
The development of these pests can be controlled with the use of a mulch of straw or mulch. In addition a clear area of wild plants around the garden. Spraying can use insecticides.
f. The oriental fruit fly
The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera SP.) body length about 5 mm with transparent wings is blackish green body color. In the form of young white maggots, towards the elderly become yellowish length is about 1 cm. Maggot is located in the flesh of the fruit.
Plum tomatoes are stricken with The oriental fruit fly become foul, when opened there were maggots. The oriental fruit fly pupae live on the surface of the soil. To control this pest is to do the tilling. Turning the soil with a hoe or hijacked, and leave it exposed to the Sun for a few days until the dead flies pupae.
It could also be making traps for The oriental fruit fly males. So The oriental fruit fly females didn’t get what and its population dropped dramatically. The berries are harvested and immediately stricken burned. Clear the weeds around the tomato plants.
Tomato plant disease
a. Wilt fusarium
Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum fungus attack. This fungus initially attacks the root of later evolved into the vessel over the network. Tomato plants are exposed to this disease will change to wither and die.
The network of veins on the stricken plants will Brown and impede the flow of water from the roots to the leaves. So that the leaves and stems upon being looked to be wilting.
When at night the plant still looks fresh but so there is sunlight and plants, evaporation occurs quickly wither. While in the afternoon the plant could return to being fresh and next day will wither back until eventually die.
To avoid the attack of the disease resistant seed use. The use of plastic mulch also can suppress the development of the fungus in the soil. Avoid cultivating tomato plants on a former farm that once afflicted by this fungus. Give it pause long enough to be back planted with tomatoes.
b. Rotten leaves
Rotten leaf disease caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans attacking tomato plants on the plateau. The leaves are developing there will be patches of brown to black. Initially, the attack ends and the sides of the leaves then extend to the entire surface of the leaf to the stem of the leaf.
The plant is developing this should be immediately revoked and burnt, do not in the grave. Use superior varieties and is free of the fungus. Spraying can use a fungicide.
c. Rotten fruit
The rotten fruit of Thanatephorus cucumeris Boletus is caused by. This disease will attack tomatoes and fruit that got small patches will look Brown. this attack will then be enlarged, hollowed out and the core cracks.
There is also a foul fruit caused by Colletotrichum coccodes Boletus. Symptoms there are small patches of watery, rounded and concave. At the base of the fruit near the stem there are patches of purple.
This is to use the seed resistant. with the way the rest of the plant is sick should not be landfilled but must be burned to break the life cycle of boletus. As well as the Use of water to shore up tomato plants so that the fruit does not touch the ground. Then do crop rotation when the attack extends spray with fungicide based active captafol
d. bacterial Spot
Bacterial spot disease caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas vesicatoria. This disease can attack the fruit, leaves, and stems of tomato plants. The leaves are developing will look curly and dry out. the stems are stricken with elongated shells will look grayish.
How to Control is done by selecting the seed that is free of the disease. Crop rotation with different families can help suppress the risk of attack. Plants that got pulled out and burned. Spraying can use bactericide-containing antibiotics, use the dosage as directed.